Wednesday, 20 May 2015

10 MARK MODEL ANSWERS - The questions that ask you to DESCRIBE/OUTLINE a Treatment/Progamme/Theory/Model

The questions which ask you to describe and outline treatments/progammes/theories and techniques, really want you to explain HOW it works. Provide examples of how it works to show your understanding.

See the model answers below, both got full marks!

Outline behavioural treatment for dysfunctional behaviour (10)

Theory: Behavioural treatment of dysfunctional behaviour is based on the theory that dysfunctional behaviour is learned. Describe the stages of the model/treatment/programme: Examples of learning include operant conditioning, classical conditioning and social learning theory. Treatment therefore uses the theory that dysfunctional behaviour is learnt to assume that it can be reversed using the same techniques. Example: For example, depressive behaviours are the result of operant and classical conditioning; an example of this could be, when someone is new in a job, they receive lots of attention and praise for doing well, however after a while, this attention and praise decreases, and so the rewards for doing well are less, this may lead to poorer performance which, in turn, leads to punishment, such as no bonus, or people getting angry with them. After a while this negative feedback leads to lower moods and an association between work and feeling sad forms. So to treat this, patients are rewarded for positive thoughts, and punished for negative thoughts (operant conditioning) in order to push them to have more positive thoughts. As well as this, the practitioner also tries to link negative situations to positive stimuli, in order for the patient to link that situation with something positive, and avoid depressive behaviours as a result.

Describe the health belief model (10)

Theory: what does it believe: The health belief model is a cognitive theory which explains why people do or do not follow health belief regimes. Describe the stages of the model/treatment/programme: There are two main aspects of this in terms of threat to health, the perceived seriousness, and the perceived susceptibility. On top of this you finally have demographic variables which may influence people’s decisions about health behaviours. These variables include things like age, income, gender, occupation, education and family size. Finally you have the likelihood of action which is weighed up by the barriers and benefits. Example (how can this apply to an individual or situation): For example if you are making a decision about binge drinking you may perceive a hang over as not very serious and your threat to your health may not imply anything particularly dangerous. Demographic variables such as young age may make you think less responsibly about your decisions as you have little to lose. Whereas if you had a family, you may make decisions more cautiously as you know it could have a knock on effect on important people in your life. In addition, to these factors there is also the cost-reward analysis. If the benefits outweigh the costs, you are likely to change your behaviour. In this case if missing out on a fun night drinking is more important than avoiding a hangover, an individual will decide to binge drink.

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