Tuesday, 19 May 2015

DISORDERS - Treatments for schizophrenia

Firstly, it is important to understand that schizophrenia cannot be treated, it will never go away. Schizophrenia can only help someone reduce and manage their symptoms.

BEHAVIOURAL TREATMENTS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA:

This is the idea that schizophrenic symptoms can be unlearned through the use of positive reinforcement (operant conditioning).

Paul and Lentz: Using social learning to facilitate institutionalised patients with schizophrenia. 

Aim: Investigated the effectiveness of operant conditioning by reinforcing appropriate behaviour with schizophrenic patients.



Method: A longitudinal study over 4 years which used three different treatments:

  • Token economy (social learning therapy)
  • Milieu therapy
  • Usual therapies provided by hospital 
Patients were assessed using observations, interviews, rating scales prior to the project and prior to release from the institution. They were also assessed numerous times after being released from the institution. An independent measures design was used. 

Procedure:

The social learning therapy was based on the behaviourist assumptions of operant conditioning. This is also known as positive reinforcement. This works by rewarding a desired behaviour repeatedly in order to enforce that behaviour in a consistent manner. In this study a token economy system was used in the hospital ward. Patients were given tokens as reward when behaved appropriately i.e. didn't display symptoms of schizophrenia. These tokens could be exchanged for luxury items and activities. 

The milieu therapy was designed to increase patients social skills and confidence by getting patients involved in a group therapy session. It includes social opportunities such as group problem solving and group interactions. This based on the assumption from Liberman's study. People with schizophrenia are not given the opportunity to learn 'normal' social skills, which can lead to negative schizophrenic symptoms (lack of emotion and withdrawn from society). Thus by putting them in social situations, they are given an opportunity to be positively reinforced by things like; creating a friendship, support network etc) 

The hospital condition varied for different patients. Generally patients spent little time in focused activities ans more time eating, taking medication and using free time. 


Results:
Positive and negative symptoms were significantly reduced in the social learning therapy (SLT- positive reinforcement).

92.5% of the patients who were part of the social learning programme were released. This was significantly higher than the other 2 therapies.

10.7% of the patients in SLT were released into independent living e.g. they did not need professional support in their care.


Conclusion: Operant conditioning is an affective means of treating people with chronic schizophrenia. However, once patients leave the institution is it very questionable whether the treatment would have long lasting effects.


BIOLOGICAL TREATMENTS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA 

The biological treatments try to reduce the symptoms of schizophrenia by shutting off certain chemicals in the brain. This type of treatment greatly supports the idea that schizophrenia has a biological cause. However, it can be questioned how effective this treatment only addresses the symptoms and not the root cause.

Kane: Fluphenazine (medication) vs placebo with patients with schizophrenia which is more effective in reducing symptoms. 



Method: A longitudinal study where patients were allocated into one of three groups (independent measures design):

  1. Fluphenazine hydrochloride 
  2. Fluphenazine deaconate: Both of these drugs work by blocking the effect of a chemical in the brain which is thought to affect thinking, feelings and behaviour. Fluphenazine can help to treat the symptoms of schizophrenia or other psychoses. It has a long-lasting effect so it is usually only given once every two to five weeks. It is usually given when people need regular treatment for their symptoms over a long period of time.
  3. Placebo (given a fake drug that would have no effect on their health or symptoms) 
The effectiveness of the treatments were assessed on whether each patient had a psychotic episode. 

Procedure: Patients were randomly assigned into the conditions. A psychotic episode was classed as a substantial clinical deterioration. Patients would be removed if there were toxic effects from the drugs or an extreme psychotic episode. 

Results: The placebo groups experienced the most psychotic episodes and the most drop outs. 
Among the drug groups there were no psychotic episodes. Only 2 patients dropped out due to toxic effects. This highlights the effectiveness of drugs as it works in reducing symptoms and is effective over a long period of time. 


COGNITIVE TREATMENTS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA 

This treatment is the idea that we can correct the irrational cognitive processes that people with schizophrenia have.

Sensky - Using Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) to reduce schizophrenic symptoms.

Aim: To compare CBT with the technique 'befriending' in reducing positive symptoms experienced in schizophrenic patients (e.g. delusions and hallucinations).

Method: Independent measures design

Sample: 90 patients from a mixture of Newcastle and London. These patients schizophrenia had not responded to medication.

Procedure:
Both treatments were delivered by 2 experienced nurses who received regular supervision. The 2 treatments involved the following:

CBT: The nurses engaged with the patient and asked the patient to tell stories about their schizophrenic episodes. The nurse would then try to develop a normalising reason for their behaviour. The nurse would also aid the treatment of others disorders which the patient may also have such as depression. Specific techniques were used to focus on the positive symptoms (auditory and visual hallucinations) experienced by the schizophrenic patients. This included using cognitive strategies to teach them coping strategies to help them deal with the voices in their head. It helps them to develop an understanding that the voices in their head are not rational.



Befriending:
The nurses in this therapy were empathetic and gave no medical/professional advice. The sessions mainly focused on hobbies, sports and current affairs. They simply acted as a supportive friend.


 

Patients symptoms and depression were assessed by blind raters to decrease bias. The patients received treatment for over 9 months.

Results: Both CBT and befriending resulted in reductions of positive and negative symptoms and depression.

At the 9 month follow up assessment, patients who had received CBT showed greater improvements on the reduction of schizophrenic symptoms and depression. Whereas the befriending group had lost some of the benefits gained during the treatment.

Conclusions: CBT is effective for people who have not responded to medication. However, it can be questioned whether a 9 month follow up is significant enough to suggest long-term effects of CBT.


HURRAY! YOU'RE ALL FINISHED! REMEMBER TO LEARN ALL THE THEORIES WITH THE STUDIES TO HELP YOU ANSWER THOSE HOW AND WHY QUESTIONS!

  




19 comments:

  1. Your blog is well written and helpful. Thanks for sharing an informative and useful post on Schizophrenia Treatments with informative images.

    Know more about Schizophrenia Treatments here.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. If you really care you'd try anything, mine isn't so bad. A board certified psychiatrist cured me of a repression, he didn't report it to a journal because he didn't cure all of the schizophrenia. Quote Sigmund Freud "The key to curing schizophrenia lies in curing repression. Please visit my April 2016 blog schizophreniarepressioncured.blogspot.com There brief, autobiographical, they won't bite, thank you very much for your time.

      Delete
  2. No problem :). Glad I could help.

    ReplyDelete
  3. Hello, I enjoy reading all of yur article.I like to write a little comment to support you. Schizophrenia Treatment

    ReplyDelete
  4. This testimony may help anyone whose relation have Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: My son of 28 years old is always confused, incoherent and childish in behaviour, repeating everything said to him. After years of treatment, using numerous Western medicine (Clozapine, Geodon, Seroquel, Risperdal, Zyprexa, Abilify) without any improvement. I found a better medicine that work effectively in all cases of psychosis. The medicine is liquid and herbal made. It improve my son's health and does have any negative effect, my son is now back to his work with beautiful kids. Do not be discourage, there is still hope. Contact Dr.Justin for an order (rodwenhill080 @ gmail. com)

    ReplyDelete
  5. Jose Andrews is my name, Some people keep questioning God, asking him why he allowed Satan to put in the world deadly diseases, but they never know that anything happening in this life, is just for a particular reason. Here is my story on how I was cured of schizophrenia by a herbal doctor Uwadia Amneifo using his herbal mixture. Few months ago, I realized I had some problem with my system, and later on I begin to forget things easily. I complained to my doctor after his text he said just a little problem with me, but that soon I will be fine. He prescribed for me and I was taking medicine according to his prescription but my condition was getting worse instead of coming down. So I went back to my doctor after some time, he said am having issues with my brain, this continues gradually until it became worse and I was diagnosed of schizophrenia. My doctor told me there is no cure to this disease that I have to live and die with it. It continued for one month and my system was almost shutting down before my cousin brother came to my house to visit and broke to us the news about a herbal doctor he heard about called doctor Uwadia Amenifo. So he explained how he heard about this herbal doctor uwadia Amenifo and the kind of terrible diseases this doctor have cured. His words were very impressing and I had to give the doctor a try. We made contact with him and he said he can cure me. So my cousin made all necessary arrangement with him, and he prepared herbs and send to me in USA. I took the herbs according to his prescription and behold to cut long story short his herbs works perfectly well, and cured me of my schizophrenia. Today I am hale and healthy and evidence of my healthiness can been seen in this piece of note I wrote myself to tell the world about Herbal Doctor Uwadia Amenifo. Please if you know anyone suffering from brain disease, in a hurry contact Doctor Uwadia Amenifo on his email (doctoruwadiaamenifo@gmail.com), and his cell no is +2349052015874. I wish all suffering from brain problem quick recovery.

    ReplyDelete
  6. This was how i got a cure for my son who was diagnosed with schizophrenia 9 years ago when he was 19. He told us that he got messages and he heard people telling him that he should hurt himself. He had a terrible temper with cursing and violence towards me and his dad. The doctor gave him different anti-psychotic drugs like Zyprexa, prolixin, risperidone, Ablify but all this even elevated the condition because he became worse over the years not until last two years that help came our way. I got Dr Joseph's contact from an old colleague of mine who relocated to Kansas city and he told me about this herbal medicine that can put an end to my son's condition. I contacted the doctor and i explained it all to him and he told me all will be well. I got the medicine and gave him as instructed and before i knew it he was normal again, no side effects at all. I am writing this today because i needed to be sure the cure was a permanent one which it is. I know what schizo is and how heart aching it can be but i tell you today that there is a cure for it. Contact the doctor on josephakormah@gmail.com for psychosis, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, he can help you too

    ReplyDelete
  7. I decided to share this to help someone out there who is still held with schizophrenia.
    My son suffered from chronic schizophrenia for 18 years and we traveled round the world from one hospital to another neurologist and spent thousands of dollars and even got scammed in this process of seeking a cure and the problem still persisted. He acted weird and aggressive and this was so scary. All thanks to Dr Joseph who was able to use his medicine to cure him permanently. He is one of the Honest men out there. If you want to contact him on how to get his medicine or for info just reach him directly on josephalberteo@gmail.com Thanks admin.

    ReplyDelete
  8. I write as a sign of gratitude to God, i am really happy to be alive today and see the break of another day, I lived and suffered with Schizophrenia for a very long time, I was shy and couldnt say it out because of gender and ego issues, but I sought online and got a testimony from a user of herbal products by DR Jose Alessio, I contacted him and he promised to help me and told me i would share a testimony like the other user, and with his drugs, prayers and instructions I was treated and now i am free! Please be warned of African spell casters and witch doctors, they only add to your problems, pray to God and follow the instructions of Dr Jose, he has the perfect solutions for the following ailments,SCHIZOPHRENIA,TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURIES or TBI, DELUSIONS, BRAIN CANCER, APHASIA, AUTISM, PSYCHOSIS, ALZHEIMER'S DISEASES, ANEURYSM, TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA, CEREBAL PALSY, DEMENTIA, DYSLEXIA, DOWN SYNDROME, BIPOLAR DISORDERS, MENINGITIS, PARKINSON'S DISEASE AND STROKES. you can write to him on joseherbals28@gmail.com He will surely be able to help you

    ReplyDelete
  9. I write as a sign of gratitude to God, i am really happy to be alive today and see the break of another day, I lived and suffered with Schizophrenia for a very long time, I was shy and couldnt say it out because of gender and ego issues, but I sought online and got a testimony from a user of herbal products by DR Jose Alessio, I contacted him and he promised to help me and told me i would share a testimony like the other user, and with his drugs, prayers and instructions I was treated and now i am free! Please be warned of African spell casters and witch doctors, they only add to your problems, pray to God and follow the instructions of Dr Jose, he has the perfect solutions for the following ailments,SCHIZOPHRENIA,TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURIES or TBI, DELUSIONS, BRAIN CANCER, APHASIA, AUTISM, PSYCHOSIS, PARKINSON'S DISEASE AND STROKES. you can write to him on joseherbals28@gmail.com He will surely be able to help you

    ReplyDelete
  10. nice write up! I suffered from dementia, I was like a Psycho, I sought help from DR Jose Alessio, with his drugs, prayers and instructions I was treated and now i am free!pray to God and follow the instructions of Dr Jose, he has the perfect solutions for the following ailments,SCHIZOPHRENIA,TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURIES or TBI, DELUSIONS, BRAIN CANCER, APHASIA, AUTISM, PSYCHOSIS, PARKINSON'S DISEASE AND STROKES.He is such a genius dealing with brain issues, you can write to him on joseherbals28@gmail.com He will surely be able to help you

    ReplyDelete
  11. Rose Weel is my name, I live in USA. I want to say to the whole world how my husband was cured of his Alzheimer’s disease. Brothers and Sisters, my husband is 78 years old. He is a retired US Army. He fought so many wars, and had encounter with so many dangerous diseases. Before he embarked on his last peace mission to Iraq they were administered injections that will enable them carry out their duties effectively. So they went to the battle field where he lost so many of his colleagues and also he was shot on his throat but bullets don’t have much effect on him. So after the battle he survived it and returned back to USA off course he was rewarded heavily by the government, and that lead to his retirement. But after his retirement, he began to behave funny like forgetting all he did in the past, and sometimes don’t recognize me his wife quickly. I took him to Military hospital, and the doctor said some king of liquid in his body is causing him so many reactions, and this is affecting his brain to cut the long story short, after much diagnoses using EEG, and also the test of PROTEIN 14-3-3 all pointing out to the fact that his brain has malfunction. So he was giving medicines but his condition was still becoming worse even while taking the medicines administered. So we went back to the military hospital, and he was finally diagnosed of Alzheimer’s disease and this the doctor said have no cure. So his conditions began to get worst by the day. I cried out for help, but the government only gave us financial support. I all the time surf the web looking for possible cure until I ran into a blog where a man named James Watt gave testimony on how his cousin was cured of CJD by an herbal doctor called Doctor Uwadia Amenifo. In his testimony he imputed the contact detail of the herbalist. So I quickly copied out the contact details of Uwadia, and I contacted him immediately and explained to him what my husband is going through. He encouraged me and promised me that surly he will cure my husband, so after all necessary arrangement was made; he prepared the herbal medicine, and shipped it to me in USA, so I followed his instructions, and gave the medicine to my husband. Behold just like a magic in my eyes my husband was responding positively to the medicine and in just less than 3 weeks I started giving him the medicine, he was very okay, and in less than 7 weeks my husband was totally curd, and as I speak to you now my husband is totally cured, and he is now very okay, and in good health. So please all here shall help me say a big thanks to Doctor Uwadia Amenifo for helping me cure my husband of his Alzheimer’s disease. Please if you need Doctor Uwadia’s contact details, here is it. Email (doctoruwadiaamenifo@gmail.com) and his number is (+2349052015874). God bless all.

    ReplyDelete
  12. Thank you for sharing such wonderful information!In my opinion, Keep a healthy life by consuming healthy food and doing exercise regularly is the best diet formula.

    Health Careers

    ReplyDelete
  13. WE WELCOME YOU ALL TO DEVANSH HERBAL HEALTH CARE.
    We have Quality Rick Simpson Cannabis oil and medical marijuana for smokers, all types of cancer cure, insomnia,fibroid,Diabetes,back pain,we also have the herbs that reduces stress and other illness. We are selling our products at very negotiable and workable prices. Apart from our very magnificent prices, when you buy from us, you are assured of the highest quality and purity available in the market,and we are 100% sure of our product, with a guaranteed discreet courier shipping or a special 24 hours confidential overnight delivery of the product to your address. We respect and value your privacy and will dont share your information with anyone. We offer discreet and Reliable packaging and delivery. -Fast and reliable shipment within 24hours within the US and 48 hours internationally, using courier service. Call or Text::::: +1936-2283-155, Email: devanshherbalheathcare@gmail.com for more information

    ReplyDelete
  14. I am happy because today i am a living testimony. i want all here to know how i was cured of my schizophrenia. i was diagnosed of schizophrenia some months back. And my health begins to deteriorate gradually. It got to the extent that the symptoms was now all over my body. i have spent thousands of $$ in search for a cure but my doctor keep telling me no cure. i almost gave up. But on a very faithful day as my daughter was browsing on the internet, she saw someone who testified of how a herbal doctor by the name Doctor Ehidiamen cured him of his disease with the use of herbs. So she tried to get in contact with this doctor, and after she explain to him, he assured her that he can cure me of my schizophrenia. He gave me the steps to follow, i followed it and he prepared the herbs and send it to me in USA. i took the mixture according to his prescription and behold it worked perfectly for me. Today i am happy to say i totally cured of my schizophrenia and my family is happy together again. Please i want you all suffering from schizophrenia, or other brain related problem to also get cured just as i was cured. for this reason i want you all to contact the herbal doctor Ehidiamen. His email is email is: doctorehidiamen@gmail.com and his phone number is +2348102675158. Just explain to him what you are passing through and get his counsel and treatment. Thanks to you all.

    ReplyDelete
  15. Looking for natural medicine to schizophrenia without any side effect Dr. Williams is the best because it has no side effect, After my son being diagnosed of schizophrenia in 2010, I have used numerous medicine for him with no improvement. He spent most of the summer in the hospital. I remember him feeling abandoned and terrified of the many injection needles that seemed necessary to keep him calm. All Western Medicine used in the past did not have any noticeable difference,one day as i was going through the internet i came across so many people with different disease testifying about dr williams herbal remedies,i ordered for it on line,that's when he started using dr williams Herbal Medicine,and now is completely cured from schizophrenia , his medicine is a permanent cure to schizophrenia, for more info contact (drwilliams098765@gmail.com for advice and for his product

    ReplyDelete
  16. I am Matthias lang, from Orlando u s a, i suffered from schizophrenia
    for 28 years, i lived in pain with the knowledge that i wasn't going to ever be like every normal human, i contacted so many doctors on this issue,and i have use so many western drugs prescribe by various doctors and all was no avail, because i was determined to get my life back, one day i was researching for this on internet and i saw a post about devansh herbal health care who cure different manners of diseases,including schizophrenia, I contacted him via email: devanshherbalheathcare@gmail.com and made purchase of the schizophrenia herb, i received the herb through USPS within 24 hours, when i received the herb i applied it as prescribed, and to god be the glory i was totally cured of schizophrenia within 1 months of usages,my dear brothers and sisters You do not have to suffer more just contact him for his medicine on devanshherbalheathcare@gmail.com.com he will definitely put an end to that problem of yours

    ReplyDelete
  17. ALL THANKS TO DR WILLIAMS WITH HIS HERBAL PORTION AM NOW FREE FROM SCHIZOPHRENIA
    I can’t believe that my SCHIZOPHRENIA is really cured. is by this time last year I start feeling bad about my life, I feel pain everyday of my life but am very happy now that am really cured I couldn’t have done this on my own. I was searching the internet about this sickness last months when I found about the great Dr Williams,on how he have be helping people with different types of disease with his herbal portion. I wrote to Dr Williams 'on his email about my problem, immediately I got a reply from him asking me some few question which i immediately reply and send back to him, after some minutes he reply me that he have work on my cure that I need to provide some materials which can enable him to work on my cure which I did on the next day of it, after some hours he inform me that he has gotten the things needed for the preparation of the herbal medication that will cure me compliantly from SCHIZOPHRENIA. After he finish preparing the medication, he send it to me and also gave me instructions on how i will be taking the medication. I did exactly as instructed and behold, after 4Weeks my SCHIZOPHRENIA VIRUS got cured. I cant believe I was negative a big thanks to him, am very happy now with my family. you can also get your self cured too from this sickness by contacting him through his email: DRWILLIAMS098765@GMAIL.COM for advice and for his product

    ReplyDelete
  18. Looking for natural medicine to schizophrenia without any side effect Dr. Williams is the best because it has no side effect, After my son being diagnosed of schizophrenia in 2010, I have used numerous medicine for him with no improvement. He spent most of the summer in the hospital. I remember him feeling abandoned and terrified of the many injection needles that seemed necessary to keep him calm. All Western Medicine used in the past did not have any noticeable difference,one day as i was going through the internet i came across so many people with different disease testifying about dr williams herbal remedies,i ordered for it on line,that's when he started using dr williams Herbal Medicine,and now is completely cured from schizophrenia , his medicine is a permanent cure to schizophrenia, for more info contact (drwilliams098765@gmail.com for advice and for his product

    ReplyDelete