Wednesday, 20 April 2016

To what extent can diagnosis to dysfunctional behaviour be ethnocentric [15]


Points to consider in your essay:
  1. High focus on mental health issues within western cultures - Stigmatised - seen as more important in western cultures. 
  2. Ethnocentric because it is reflective of what most people in a particular place and time do - Ethnocentric and lacks historical validity. 
  3. DSM is specific for certain cultures so not as ethnocentric when applied to that specific culture.
  4. Dysfunctional behaviour - one definition of it is a failure to function adequately - least ethnocentric as this will vary accordingly to each culture in a similar way. 
  5. Trying to generalise to other cultures - ethnocentric - but only applying to studied culture less ethnocentric. 
  6. If research into dysfunctional behaviour has diverse sample - less ethnocentric.
  7. Cultural definitions of health compared to objective definitions of health.

Tuesday, 19 April 2016

Past and Future questions Disorders

Unit
Sub-unit
Study / example
Exam Questions
Disorders
Classification and symptoms of disorders
DSM

Anxiety disorder: SPADE

Affective disorder:
FFLIRT

Psychotic disorder:

DDDSNHS
a)      June 2010: Describe the characteristics of a affective disorder [10]
b)      Jan 2010: Describe the characteristics of a psychotic disorder [10]
c)      Jan 2010: Evaluate difficulties when identifying characteristic of psychological disorders [15]
d)      June 2010: Outline one way (e.g. classification system) in which dysfunctional behaviour can be categorised [10]
e)      June 2010: Discuss limitations of diagnosing dysfunctional behaviour [15]
f)       June 2012: To what extent may diagnoses of dysfunctional behaviour be considered ethnocentric [15]
g)      Jan 2013: Evaluate the validity of diagnoses of dysfunctional behaviour [15]
h)      June 2013: Describe the characteristics of one anxiety disorder [10]
i)        June 2013: To what extent is it valid to identify a disorder from a list of characteristics [15]
j)        June 2014: Outline the characteristics of an affective disorder [10]
k)      June 2014: Assess the reliability of identifying a disorder from a list of characteristics [15]

Explanations of schizophrenia
Liberman: Behaviourist

Mahler: Cognitive irrational schemas

Gottesman and Shields: Genes
a)      June 2010: Outline how the biological approach would explain one of the following disorders; affective; anxiety; psychotic [10]
b)      June 2010: Evaluate different explanations of the disorder you referred to in part a [15]
c)      Jan 2011: Outline a biological explanation of dysfunctional behaviour [10]
d)      Jan 2011: Discuss whether explanations of dysfunctional behaviour are reductionist [15]
e)      Jan 2011: Outline a behavioural explanation of one disorder [10]
f)       Jan 2011: Compare explanations of the disorder you referred to in part a [15]
g)      June 2011: How might cognitive psychologists explain dysfunctional behaviour [10
h)      June 2011: Assess the appropriateness of different explanations of dysfunctional behaviour [15]
i)        Jan 2013: Outline a cognitive explanation to of dysfunctional behaviour [10]
j)        Jan 2013: Compare explanations of dysfunctional behaviour [15]

Treatments of schizophrenia
Paul and Lentz: Behaviourist – positive reinforcement

Sensky: Cognitive – CBT


Kane: Biological – drugs fluphenazine

a)      June 2011: How could a psychological disorder (either affective or anxiety or psychotic) be treated biologically? [10]
b)      June 2011: Compare approaches to treating the disorder you referred to in part a [15]
c)      June 2012: Outline a cognitive behavioural therapy as a treatment for one disorder (either affective or anxiety or psychotic).
d)      June 2012: Assess the effectiveness of the treatments for one disorder [15]
e)      Jan 2012: Describe a behavioural treatment for dysfunctional behaviour [10]
f)       Jan 2012: Discuss ethical considerations regarding the treatment of dysfunctional behaviour [15]
g)      Jan 2013: Outline a behavioural treatment of a disorder [10]
h)      Jan 2013: Assess the strengths and weaknesses of treatments for the disorder you referred to in part a [15]
i)        June 2014: Describe how dysfunctional behaviour could be treated biologically [10]
j)        June 2014: Discuss ethical issues in the treatment of dysfunctional behaviour [15]

Past and Future questions Stress

Unit
Sub-unit
Study / example
Exam Questions
Stress
Causes of stress
Johansson: Work

Geers and Maisel: Lack of control

Kanner: Hassles
a)      Jan 2010: Describe one piece of research which considers work as a source of stress [10]
b)      Jan 2010: Discuss problems of conducting research into the causes of stress [15]
c)      June 2011: Outline one piece of evidence which suggests that stress can be caused by hassles and/or life events [10].
d)      June 2011: Evaluate the reliability of methods of measuring stress [15]
e)      June 2014: Outline how work can be a source of stress [10]
f)       June 2014: Evaluate the use of quantitative data when researching causes of stress [15]
g)      Outline how a lack of control can lead to stress [10]

Measures of stress
Johansson: Combined approach 

Geers and Maisel: Biological

Kanner: Hassles
Self-report
a)      June 2010: Describe one physiological measure of stress [10]
b)      June 2010: Assess the validity of different methods of measuring stress [15]
c)      June 2012: Describe self-report as a method of measuring stress [10]
d)      June 2012:Compare different measures of stress [15]
Managing stress
Waxler-Morrison: Social support

Meichenbuam: SIT – CBT

Budzynski: Biofeedback
a)      Jan 2010: Outline a cognitive technique for managing stress [10]
b)      Jan 2010: Compare techniques for managing stress [15]
c)      Jan 2011: Discuss whether stress would be managed by treating the individual or their situation [15]
d)      Jan 2012: Outline the social approach to managing stress [10]

Past and Future Questions Healthy Living

Unit
Sub-unit
Study / example
Exam Questions
Healthy living
Theories of health belief 
Becker: Health belief model

Rotter: Locus of Control

Bandura: Self-efficacy
a)      June 2010: Describe self-efficacy as a theory of health belief [10]
b)      June 2010: Discuss the theoretical approaches to beliefs about health [15]
c)      June 2012: Describe the Health Belief Model [10]
d)      June 2012: To what extent is there freewill in relation to the health belief model [15]
e)      June 2013: Describe locus of control with reference to health behaviours [10]
f)       June 2013: To what extent are theories of health belief reductionist [15]


Methods of health promotion
Dannenberg: Legislation

Cowpe: Media campaigns

Janis and Feshbach:
Fear arousal
a)      June 2011: Describe one piece of research into media campaigning as a method of health promotion [10]
b)      June 2011: Discuss the ecological validity of research into the methods of health promotion [15]
c)      Jan 2011: How can fear arousal be used as a method of health promotion
d)      Jan 2011: Assess the effectiveness of methods of health promotion [15]
e)      Jan 2013: How has legislation been used as a method of health promotion [10]
f)       Jan 2013: To what extent is research into methods of health promotion limited [15]
g)      June 2014: How can media campaigns be used to promote healthy behaviour [10]
h)      June 2014: Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of research into methods of health promotion [15]
Adherence to medical regimes
Bulpitt: Reasons for non-adherence

Lustman: Measuring non-adherence

Watt: Improving non-adherence
a)      Jan 2010: Describe one way to measure non-adherence to medical advice [10]
b)      Jan 2010: Assess the reliability of research into non-adherence to medical advice [15]
c)      Jan 2012: Explain why people may not adhere to medical regimes [10]
d)      Jan 2012: Discuss the difficulties of researching adherence to medical regimes [15]
e)      June 2013: How could adherence to medical regimes be improved? [10]
f)       June 2013: Discuss the usefulness of research into adherence to medical regimes [15]

Past and Future questions After a Guilty Verdicts

Unit
Sub-unit
Study / example
Exam Questions
After a guilty verdict
Imprisonment
Dooley: Suicide and depression in prisons

Zimbardo: The prison situation and prison roles

Gillis and Nafekh: Planned behaviours once freed from jail
a)      Jan 2010: Identify the link between imprisonment and suicide [10]
b)      Jan 2010: Evaluate the usefulness of research into the psychological effects of imprisonment [15]
c)      June 2011: Describe one piece of research into looking death worthy [10]
d)      June 2011: To what extent can research into alternatives to imprisonment be considered ethnocentric
e)      Jan 2013: Describe research into planned behaviours once freed from jail [10]
f)       Jan 2013: Evaluate the use of qualitative and quantitative data when researching imprisonment [15]
g)      June 2013: Describe research into the prison situation and roles [10]
h)      June 2013: Evaluate the methodology used in research into imprisonment [15]
i)        June 2015: What have psychologists learned about depression and suicide risk in prisons [10]
j)        June 2015: Discuss the reliability of research into imprisonment [15]
k)      How can the prison situation and roles effect behaviour [10]

Alternatives to imprisonment
Mair and May: Probation

Sherman and Strang: Restorative justice

Eberhardt: Death penalty – looking death worthy  
a)      June 2012: How can probation serve as an alternative to imprisonment [10]
b)      June 2012: Evaluate limitations of research into alternatives to imprisonment [15]
c)      June 2013: How is restorative justice used after a guilty verdict? [10]
d)      June 2013: To what extent are alternatives to imprisonment effective [15]
e)      June 2014: Outline research into looking death worthy [10]
f)       June 2014: Assess the validity of research into alternatives to imprisonment [15]
g)      Explain how the death penalty could be considered ethnocentric [10]
Treatment programmes
Wheatley: Ear acupuncture

Cann: Cognitive therapies

Ireland: Anger management programmes
a)      June 2010: Describe anger management as a treatment programme for offenders [10]
b)      June 2010: Assess the effectiveness of offender treatment programmes [15]
c)      Jan 2012: How has ear acupuncture been used as a treatment programme? [10]
d)      Jan 2012: Compare the strengths of different offender treatment programmes [15]
e)      June 2014: Describe a cognitive skills programmes that is used with offenders [10]
f)       June 2014: Assess the usefulness of offender treatment programmes [15]

Past and Future questions Researching a verdict

Unit
Sub-unit
Study / example
Exam Questions
Reaching a Verdict
Persuading a jury
Pennington: Story order or witness order (primacy/recency)

Loftus: Effects of expert witness on jury perception of EWT

Pickel: Effect of evidence being ruled inadmissible
a)      What is the effect on a jury of evidence being ruled inadmissible in court? [10]
b)      Jan 2011: Evaluate the usefulness of research into persuading a jury [15]
c)      June 2011: What effect does the order in which testimony is presented have on persuading a jury [10]
d)      June 2011: Discuss limitations of research into persuading a jury [15]
e)      Jan 2013: Describe how persuasion can be used in a courtroom [10]
f)       Jan 2013: To what extent is research into persuading a jury useful [15]
g)      Describe research into the effect of order of testimony in a jury [10]
h)      Evaluate the methodology of research into persuading a jury [15]
i)        Describe how an eyewitness expert can influence courtroom behaviour [10]
j)        Describe one study examining whether it is more effective to present evidence in story order or witness order [10]                                                                                           
k)      Discuss problems relating to generalisation and validity from research investigating influences on jury decision making [15]




Witness appeal
Castellow: effects of physical attractiveness on verdicts

Penrod:  Effect of witness confidence on jurors

Ross: Impact of protective shields and videotaped testimony
a)      June 2010: Describe how the attractiveness of a defendant can influence courtroom behaviour [10]                                                                                                                                    
b)      June 2010: Evaluate the methodology used in research into witness appeal [15]  
c)      Jan 2012: Describe research into the effect of shields and videotape on children giving evidence [10]
d)      Jan 2012: Discuss difficulties which may be encountered when researching witness appeal [15]
e)      June 2013: Describe research into the effect of witness confidence in the courtroom [10]
f)       Jun2 2013: Assess the usefulness of research into witness appeal [15]
g)      Describe how the confidence of a witness can influence courtroom behaviour [10]
h)     Describe one piece of research which investigates the effects of shields and video tape on children giving evidence [10]                                                                                
i)        Discuss the validity of research into witness appeal [15]
Reaching a verdict
Hastie: Stages and influences on decision making

Asch  Power of majority influence and conformity

Nemeth: Minority influence
a)      June 2011: How might the view of the majority influence a jury when reaching a verdict [10]
b)      June 2011: Evaluate the application of research into what influences reaching a verdict in court [15]
c)      June 2012: Describe the stages of jury decision-making when reaching a verdict [10]
d)      June 2012: Discuss ethical issues when researching influences on reaching a verdict in court [15]
e)      June 2015: How can minority influence be used to effect juries decisions [10]
f)       June 2015: Discuss the validity of research into reaching a verdict [15]
g)      Describe one piece of research investigating the power of majority influence and conformity on group decision making [10]                                                                              
h)     Discuss problems associated with investigating jury decision making [15]                  
i)        Describe one piece of research investigating minority influence on decision making [10].                                                                                                                                             
j)        Evaluate methods of research into jury decision making [15]